Wednesday, 17 June 2015

Honey Bees - Behaviour, Facts and Control

Honey Bees - What’s All The Buzz About?  


Bees are found all around the globe, with more than 20,000 species known of to date. Honey bees represent a small percentage of these species, but as pollinators they are incredibly important to the survival of mankind. One quarter of the food humans consume comes from crops pollinated by honey bees. It might be surprising, but beekeeping is one of the oldest agricultural efforts known to humans. Today, beekeeping is both a hobby and a business.

honey bee pest controlHoney Bee Appearance  

Honey bees can be recognized by their golden, light brown colour and oval shaped bodies with dark-to-light ridges along their abdomen. They are typically about 15mm long and are covered with a golden fur. These herbivores are typically non aggressive, but they do have a stinger, which they will use if they feel threatened. For this reason, it is best to have a professional come and remove any honey bee nests that might be located near your home or business.





Habits and Behaviour 

pest control london ontario
bee control london ontarioHoney bees are unique from other bee species because they are extremely social creatures and live co-operatively among other members in the hive. In the wild, hives can typically be found in hollow trees; although, in rocky areas, caves and crevices in rocks can also be a good spot for bee hives.  Honey bee hives can also be found in homes, most commonly in wall voids. A honey bee hive is made entirely out of a wax that the worker bee secretes from a highly specialized gland in its abdomen. The  worker bee takes a couple pieces of wax from their abdomen, mixes it with saliva until it’s soft enough to form into the comb cells that make up the hive. In Canada and the rest of North-America, man-made bee hives are called apiaries and are constructed out of wooden box frames stacked on top of one another to make the hive.



Honey bees are social creatures that live in colonies; a single colony consists of: 

  • One Queen  - The queen lays eggs in the cells of nest and establishes new colonies; she can produce up to 2,000 eggs daily. The queen bee mates with drones; this happens only once in her life. She has a special organ that allows her to store sperm and release it, as needed, to fertilize eggs. The queen honey bee will produce worker bees for the remainder of her life, usually lasting up to five years.

  • Drones - These are male bees that have only one job, to mate with virgin queen bees; they die shortly after mating which happens in spring and summer. Drones are the minority in the hive; because their only purpose is to mate with virgin queens, they are forced out of the hive in the fall to conserve on food for the queen.

  • Workers - These are infertile females with several important duties in their short life span of 35-40 days. Her first job, as a one day old worker, is to:  clean the cells in which the queen will lay eggs, clean the new bees, and seal brood cells once an egg has be laid. At three days old she will tend to larva and the queen.  As she ages she will take care of: feeding and cleaning the queen, cleaning the comb, making honey, and protecting the hive from outside intruders.  As worker bees get older they will take care of: secreting wax and building cells, cleaning the hive, pollen packing, nectar ripening, sealing honey cells, and maintaining hive temperature by fanning the comb.  The last stage of the workers life involves working outside of the hive, including: protecting the hive, foraging, making sure the hive is well ventilated.

Swarming is a natural part of a healthy bee colony and will happen when a hive has limited space. This happens when the honey production is so great that the bees being fill cells that were intended for eggs. With limited space for egg laying, the queen with leave and split the colony. In this case, a queen bee will leave, bringing with her half of the worker bees and leaving behind a new virgin queen to ensure the survival of the hive. A honey bee swarm may consist of thousands of worker bees that temporary form a cluster on tree branches or shrubs, and will remain there for up to a few days; during this time a scout honey bee searches for a new location for the colony. Once a site is located, the swarm immediately flies to the new site. 

Pollination 

Honey bees and flowering plants live in symbiosis, depending on one-another to carry out their jobs on planet earth. Our planet would be drastically different without honey bees here to cross-pollinate flowering plants and fruit blossoms, which is why these creatures are of such high importance to humans. They are responsible for pollinating a vast amount of crops that produce seeds and food for our survival. This is why it is important to understand the significance of pollination by honey bees and to protect them through education and research. 


Professional Removal and Relocation of Honey Bees

Honey bees serve an important purpose, but they can also pose a problem and sting you if they feel threatened. This is why it’s important to have a professional remove a honey bee nest that may be located in or around your home or business.  Honey bee nests can often be found inside of wall voids and the roof of a home. It is vital that you do not try to kill a honey bee’s nest. These creatures are decreasing in numbers and need to be protected, not killed. 

Sawyer Pest Control is available to remove bee swarms and or nests located within structures. Once captured or removed, bees are placed into a hive and relocated from the site to a foster location or one of our yards. This is a time consuming and labor intensive process that requires skill, proper equipment and the specialized clothing. Sawyer Pest Control uses environmentally friendly methods to deal with honey bees, ensuring the least amount of damage to the area requiring removal, if any. A professional will safely remove the bees and relocate them to an awaiting hive or apiary, where the bees can continue with their job of pollination and humans can benefit from their honey production. This is a unique control process which supports the survival of the honey bee allowing for continued pollination services.

Below are some photos of a honeybee removal from a home.


pest control london ontario

Holes in the exterior of a house allow bees to move inside and locate a nesting place.


wasp control london ontario

The honey bees are nested under the floor.


bee control

Carefully, we access the sub flooring to expose the nesting site.


honey bees

The honey bee’s have made a hive in the insulation beneath the floor as shown here.


bee control

The bee’s have been carefully removed and placed in a bin for relocation.




If you are having problems with bees or wasps please contact Sawyer Pest Management Inc. for additional information and control options.

Sawyer Pest Management Inc. is your local pest control professional and is licensed by the Ontario ministry of the Environment and is insured to provide pest management services. Each service representative is a licensed structural exterminator, and is trained and competent in the services we provide.


Sawyer Pest Management is proud to provided service programs in the communities of London, Melbourne, Ingersoll, Aylmer, Port Stanley, Strathroy, St. Thomas, Parkhill, Grand Bend, Bayfield, Exeter, Lucan and St. Marys and in the surrounding communities. Below are some action photo’s of honey bee removal by Sawyer Pest Control.

Wednesday, 20 May 2015

How to Kill Carpenter Ants

Carpenter ants are exceptionally common, exceptionally destructive pests. Left unchecked, a carpenter ant infestation can spread rapidly. Because of this, identifying and exterminating carpenter ants as early as possible can help prevent serious structural damage, which can be quite costly to repair. See Step 1 below to start stamping out a carpenter ant infestation before it grows out of control.

Part 1 of 3: Spotting an Infestation

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    1
    Learn how to identify carpenter ants. Carpenter ants are a group of ants belonging to the genus Camponotus, of which there are over 1,000 species.[1]Carpenter ants live on every continent except for Antarctica and, as individual species, have a wide variety of differentiating features. However, certain traits common to the entire genus are useful to know when attempting to decide whether the ants in your home are carpenter ants or another variety. Some common traits to look for are:[2]
    • Color: Usually red, black, or an intermediate shade
    • Shape: Segmented with oval abdomen and boxy, thin thorax. The tops of carpenter ant thoraxes typically have a smooth, even curve, rather than an uneven or bumpy one.
    • Size: Approximately 3/8”-1/2", depending on caste
    • Antennae: Yes
    • Wings: Typical worker ants do not have wings. However, relatively rare male drones may possess them.
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    2
    Learn where carpenter ants live. Carpenter ants can (and will) establish a nest inside or outside of any type of structure, but wooden homes are especially at risk because carpenter ants like to bore tiny tunnels into wood. Unlike termites, carpenter ants don't eat wood - they only tunnel into the structure to create a nest.[3] Because moist wood is easier than dry wood for carpenter ants to tunnel through, the interior locations of carpenter ants will often be near a moisture source, like a leaky sink or bath.
    • Sometimes, carpenter ants build a network of one or more satellite or parent colonies outside a structure and travel between these colonies and their foothold indoors, entering the structure through small cracks or openings. In these cases, outdoor colonies will often be located in tree stumps, landscape timbers, wood piles or other sources of damp wood. You can often locate carpenter ant trails between colonies in the early morning or early evening when the carpenter ants are foraging.
    • When carpenter ants tunnel, they can leave “frass", a substance resembling tiny wood shavings or sawdust, behind. Frass often contains dead insects. This can provide clues to their nesting location. If you come across small piles of frass in or around your house, carefully inspect the wood nearby for tunnels - probing the suspected wood with a thin screwdriver can reveal hollow spots.[4]
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    3
    Know where to look for carpenter ant activity. Though they usually nest in wood, if a carpenter ant colony is within the wall of your home, you may have a hard time finding it. If you suspect you have carpenter ants, it's a good idea to look for them in easily-accessible places where you are likely to find them. Certain common household sites are more supportive of carpenter ant activities than others - especially if these sites are damp and/or have access to food. Look for ants in the following areas:
    • Carpets – Check around doors, fireplaces, and other areas with easy access to the outside.
    • Patios and foundations
    • Areas with vegetation - Ants like to nest and forage in trails out of sight behind any vegetation, tree stumps, branches which rests against foundations, patios, etc. Pull back the vegetation to look for ants. When you find foraging ants, attempt to follow them back to their colony.
      • Mulch and leaf litter can harbor numerous types of ants in addition to carpenter ants, such as pavement ants, fire ants, and Argentine ants. Rake mulch back from the ground to check for colonies.
    • Floors – Potted plants, compost bends, or any other suitable item that has ground contact can contain carpenter ants.

Part 2 of 3: Exterminating Carpenter Ants

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    1
    Use caution when dealing with carpenter ants. Though it's unlikely to happen, this warning bears mentioning: don't handle carpenter ants or their nests directly. Carpenter ants are not particularly aggressive and will not usually bite humans. However, when irritated or threatened, they can and will inflict a painful bite. Carpenter ants are also known to spray formic acid into bite wounds, increasing the pain. Though it's not the end of the world to be bitten by carpenter ants, you can avoid unnecessary pain by avoiding touching the ants or their nests unless it's absolutely necessary, in which case you should use long sleeves and gloves.
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    2
    Locate the colony or colonies. The first step to exterminating a carpenter ant colony is to find it. To pinpoint the location of colonies in your home, look for ants, small holes, and piles of frass in the locations discussed in Part One, paying special attention to any areas that appear to contain moist wood. You can also test wood for infestations near the surface by firmly tapping. Wood with extensive burrowing can sound thinner or hollower than unaffected wood. Tapping can also agitate ants, causing them to leave the nest, where you may be able to see them more easily.
    • Don't forget that mature nests often have smaller satellite nests nearby, which also must be located to ensure the entire ant infestation is exterminated.
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    3
    Destroy or remove the colony. In the case of smaller colonies, or ones that are fairly easy to access, it's sometimes possible to simply get rid of the colony itself. If the colony is outdoors, simply dispose of the affected wood carefully, using impenetrable materials like tarps to protect yourself from the ants as you handle the wood. If the colony has been located indoors, some pest control websites recommend using a vacuum cleaner's hose attachment to disrupt the colony and suck the ants out.[5]
    • If using the vacuum cleaner method, be sure to carefully seal and dispose of the dust bag to keep any ants that survive from escaping.
    • If you find a colony that has extensively burrowed through the wood in your wall, don't cut the wood out - you risk compromising the structural integrity of your house. Instead, call a professional.
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    4
    Use baits for ant colonies that cannot be treated directly. You may not always be able to find carpenter ant colonies. However, if you can find significant numbers of the ants themselves, placing insecticides in their trails can control and eliminate the colony. A variety of baits, traps, and other ant-killing products are available for sale to the general public - visit your local hardware store to check which options are available to you.
    • Be very careful when using poison ant bait in houses with small children. Make sure that the child knows not to eat the poison, or, if s/he is too young to understand, keep the child under close supervision.
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    5
    Contact a professional. If you can't quickly locate and eliminate the colony and you haven't had success with insecticides, it's usually best to contact a professional exterminator. Professionals have access to insecticides and other tools that aren't available to the general public, but, more importantly, their training and experience allows them to locate and assess carpenter ant infestations much more intelligently than the average person.
    • Keep in mind that certain methods that exterminators use to kill ants may require your family to temporarily vacate your house for a day or two.
    • Don't delay in contacting a professional - the longer you wait to deal with a carpenter ant infestation, the larger the colony can grow and the more extensive the damage to your wood structure may be.


  1. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 9.jpg
    1
    Eliminate sources of moisture. Moisture is a big factor in carpenter ant infestations. Often, a patch of wood will become susceptible to infestation after it's been exposed to moisture. By fixing or sealing any leaks that allow water into your house, you can make it much more difficult for carpenter ants to nest. Below are a few suggestions for eliminating the moisture that can contribute to carpenter ant infestations:[6]
    • Check around windows for signs of an improper seal
    • Check your roof and weather-facing walls for leaks
    • Keep basements, attics, and crawl spaces well-ventilated
    • Look for and fix leaky pipes
    • Clean clogged gutters to eliminate runoff water
  2. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 10.jpg
    2
    Seal up entry points, cracks and crevices. If carpenter ants can no longer get in and out your house, any indoor satellite colonies that are being fed by larger outside colonies will become isolated and may die off. Inspect the outside of your home for cracks, holes, and other small spaces that allow the passage of ants - pay special attention to the areas of exterior walls that are closest to the ground or foundation. Seal any holes you find with caulk or a strong putty.
    • Also check around the points where water and electrical lines enter your home, as these points are extra vulnerable to ant infestation.[7]
  3. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 11.jpg
    3
    Eliminate wood materials near your home. Because carpenter ants like to make their nests in wood both inside and outside of buildings, finding and eliminating infested wood outside your wood can keep ants from making their way into your house. Carefully inspect any sources of wood near your home - if infested, move or carefully dispose of these wood sources. Places to look include:[8]
    • Stumps
    • Firewood piles
    • Old trees, especially if their branches touch your house.
    • Piles of yard waste
  4. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 12.jpg
    4
    Consider installing an artificial barrier. If carpenter ants are a recurring problem, you may want to think about installing a small strip of gravel or stones around your home. This "barrier" zone is fairly inhospitable to carpenter ants and may discourage them from crawling into your house through holes near the foundation. Consult with a contractor to discuss the practicality and affordability of such a project at your house, or, if you're particularly handy, tackle this home improvement project yourself.

Thursday, 16 April 2015

Pest Control Tips

Every home-dweller has to eventually contend with pests such as insects, raccoons, and rodents. But don't fret: There are time-proven ways to deter and eradicate these little beasts. We've collected some here:
Insects
  • Keep ants away from your home with a concoction of borax and sugar. Mix 1 cup sugar and 1 cup borax in a quart jar. Punch holes in the jar's lid, and sprinkle the mixture outdoors around the foundation of your home and around the baseboards inside your house. The ants are attracted by the sugar and poisoned by the borax.
  • If you have cockroaches, sprinkle borax powder in the kitchen and bathroom cabinets. Avoid sprinkling where children and pets could be affected.
  • If there's a hornet, wasp, bee or other flying insect in your house and you have no insect spray, kill it with hair spray.
  • If your home becomes infested with fleas, vacuum rugs thoroughly before spraying, and throw the dust bag out at once.
  • Change the water in a birdbath every 3 days to help reduce the mosquito population.
  • The presence of carpenter ants indicates another problem. Because they're fond of damp wood, you should check your pipes, roof and windowsills for water leaks.
  • Centipedes prey on other bugs, so the presence of centipedes in your house may indicate the presence of other insects as well.
  • You can distinguish termite damage from other insect damage by examining any holes you find in wood. Termites usually eat only the soft part of wood, leaving the annual rings intact.
  • If you live in a multiunit building, any pest control measures you take individually will be ineffective in the long run simply because insects can travel form one apartment to another. To eliminate bugs completely, the entire building should be treated at one time.
Raccoons and Rodents
  • Raw bacon or peanut butter makes good bait for a mousetrap. Make sure a mouse will have to tug the trap to remove the bait. If you're using peanut butter, dab some on the triggering device and let it harden before setting the trap. If bacon is your bait, tie it around the triggering device.
  • If a raccoon sets up housekeeping in your attic or chimney, chemical repellants -- such as oil of mustard -- are temporarily effective. (The smell may bother you as much as it does the raccoon.) Your best bet is to let the animal leave, and then cover its entrance hole with wire mesh so that it cannot return.
  • To keep rodents out of your house, seal every opening they could squeeze through. Some need less than 1/4 inch of space. Put poison in deep cracks or holes, and stuff them with steel wool or scouring pads pushed in with a screwdriver. Close the spaces with spackling compound mixed with steel wool fragments.

Wednesday, 3 December 2014

Winter Pests and Bugs



pest control london ontario
 
elisfanclub/Flickr/CC BY-SA 2.0
 
There's no doubt that summer is prime pest season. Insects are abundant; flies and mosquitoes buzz freely in through opening doors and windows; and wildlife, including rats and mice, actively roam around grassy lawns and open fields.
But, as too many too often learn, such pests don't go completely inactive in the winter. In fact, when it is cold and wet or snowy outside, pests are even more likely to seek the warmth and shelter of the indoors. Some of most common winter pests and guidance for control include:  

  1. Winged Carpenter Ants - Flying ants in the home are rarely a good sign, and this is particularly true if they are seen indoors during the winter. Finding a winged ant or two indoors during the summer does not necessarily mean there is a problem, but if winged ants are seen in the home during the winter months, there is a strong likelihood that there is a carpenter ant nest within the structure.

  1. Cluster Fly - Homeowners generally expect to have to swat a fly or two in the house during the summer months. With family members constantly filing in and out; doors being propped while groceries are carried in; windows opened to screens that need mending, it is generally more likely that a fly will get in than that all will be kept out.
 
  1. Mice - A wily, curious creature, the house mouse is the most common of home-invading mice. Cute, perhaps, in a cage in the pet store, but not so cute when it decides to make your house its home.
 
  1. Rats - Two species of rodents are most common in the U.S.: the Norway rat and the roof rat. Along with the common house mouse, both rats are believed to have been brought to the U.S. aboard ships bound for the New World in the 17th and 18th centuries.
 
  1. Bed bugs - For decades, the saying “Sleep tight, don’t let the bed bugs bite” was a fairly meaningless lights-out phrase for kids in the U.S. But within the last few years, bed bugs have reappeared, causing sleepless nights for homeowners and hotel owners alike.
 
  1. Fruit Fly - The fruit fly is one of the most common, and one of the smallest flies found in the home. It is often unknowingly brought into the home on fresh fruits and vegetables
 
  1. Moth Fly - Moth flies (Psychoda sp.) are a common small fly generally seen buzzing around drains - thus its common name of drain fly. Though it causes no real damage, its high numbers can cause it to become a nuisance pest in or around the home.
 
  1. Spiders - There are more than 35,000 known spider species in the world, with only about a tenth (3,500) of those appearing in the U.S. and often only one tenth (350) of those in any single region. In general, spiders are beneficial creatures, preying and feeding on flies, crickets, mites, and other household and yard pests. Most are completely harmless to humans. But when they get into your home, they can definitely be a nuisance.
 
  1. Overwintering Insects - Any discussion of insects over the winter is likely to elicit the term "overwintering." While its meaning can be as simple as indicating how an insect (or other animal or plant) spends its time over the winter, it more frequently is used to refer to a sort of hibernation undertaken by insects in order to survive the cold temperatures.
 
  1. Firewood Pests - A wood-burning stove or fireplace can bring a great deal of warmth, comfort and pleasing aesthetics into a home. However the firewood that is brought into the home for that fire can also bring with it a number of household pests.
 

Prevent Home Invasion

 

  As described in Tips for Control of Firewood Insects (described above), you can prevent home invasion of pests, and there are methods to control them if they do get in: Rodent Control - The best method of rodent control is prevention through sanitation and exclusion. But these clever creatures can enter a home or building through spaces much smaller than the seeming roundness of their bodies and they are constantly seeking food, water, and shelter. Thus, it is important to keep an eye out for signs of mice and rats and understand control methods. Pest Proof Your Home - If you are like almost half the households questioned in a University of Kentucky survey, a single cockroach in your home would cause you to pull out a can of bug spray or call a pest control professional. Get Rid of Ants - To solve an ant problem, you need to first eliminate the ones you don’t see in order to get rid of the ones you do. Ants are very social insects with very strict hierarchies.  

Calling a Professional

 

  Sometimes it is just better to call on a professional. When that is the case, there are: Top 12 Considerations in Hiring a Pest Control Professional. Sometimes it is better to hire a pest control professional than to try to do it yourself. This is particularly true if the pest problem is ongoing, if the infestation has become large, or if the products needed for control are only authorized for use by certified professionals.  

Monday, 6 October 2014

Bed Bug Control Techniques

Bed bugs, or cimicidae, are small parasitic insects. The term usually refers to species that prefer to feed on human blood.

Early detection and treatment are critical to successful control. According to a survey, the most commonly infested places are the mattress (98.2%), boxspring (93.6%), as well as nearby carpets and baseboards (94.1%). In fact, bed bugs thrive in areas where there is an adequate supply of available hosts, and plenty of cracks and harborages within 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) of the host.
Because treatments are required in sleeping areas and other sensitive locations, methods other than chemical pesticides are in demand. Treatments can be costly, laborious, time consuming, repetitive, may entail health risks, and cause embarrassment to the person affected.

Public health

Bed bug infestations spread easily in connecting units and have negative effects on psychological well-being and housing markets. In response, many areas have specific laws about responsibilities upon discovering a bed bug infestation, particularly in hotels and multi-family housing units, because an unprofessional level of response can have the effect of prolonging the invisible part of the infestation and spreading it to nearby units. Common laws include responsibilities such as the following: Lessors must educate all lessees about bedbugs, lessee must immediately notify lessor in writing upon discovery of infestation, lessor must not intentionally lease infested unit, lessee must not intentionally introduce infested items, lessor must eradicate the infestation immediately every time it occurs at a professional level including all connecting units, and lessee must cooperate in the eradication process.
An example of how epidemic bed bug infestation can become in densely populated areas is the Bed Bug Registry. Mapped bed bug reports graphically illustrate how difficult it can be to eliminate bed bugs where many people live in adjacent units like in New York City, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.

Pesticides

Though commonly used, the pesticide approach often requires multiple visits and may not always be effective due to pesticide resistance and dispersal of the bed bugs. According to a 2005 survey, only 6.1% of companies claim to be able to eliminate bed bugs in a single visit, while 62.6% claim to be able to control a problem in 2–3 visits. Insecticide application may cause dispersal of bed bugs to neighbouring areas of a structure, spreading the infestation. Furthermore, the problem of insecticide resistance in bed bug populations increases their opportunity to spread. Studies of bed bug populations across the United States indicate that resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, which are used in the majority of bed bugs cases, is widespread. Exterminators often require individuals to dispose of furniture and other infested materials. It is advisable to break or mark these infested items to prevent their being unintentionally recycled and furthering the spread of bed bugs.

Effectiveness

The well-established resistance of bed bugs to DDT and pyrethroids has created a need for different and newer chemical approaches to the extermination of bed bugs. In 2008 a study was conducted on bed bug resistance to a variety of both old and new insecticides, with the following results, listed in order from most- to least-effective: λ-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, carbaryl, imidacloprid, fipronil, permethrin, diazinon, spinosyn, dichlorvos, chlorfenapyr,and DDT.[4] Note that the first of these, λ-cyhalothrin, is itself a pyrethroid-based insecticide— in the past, however, it has been used principally for the treatment of cotton crops and so bed bugs have not developed a genetic resistance to it.

Disadvantages

Non-residue methods of mattress treatment are desired in place of contaminating mattresses with insecticides. Furthermore, other methods such as vacuuming must often be used in conjunction with pesticides to fully eradicate bed bugs. Spraying the mattress with insecticide is undesirable as the room must be suitably ventilated, sufficient time must be given after application before the mattress can be used again and there is a risk of the user having an allergic reaction to the chemicals, not to mention other possible health risks including cancer and acute neurotoxicity.
Concerns over the possible health effects of pesticides on people and pets, as well as the dispersal of bed bugs to neighbouring dwellings due to repellent effects of insecticides, make the practice of chemically treating the mattresses problematic.

Resistance

Bed bugs are developing resistance to various pesticides including DDT and organophosphates. Some populations have developed a resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Although now often ineffective, the resistance to pyrethroid allows for new chemicals that work in different ways to be investigated, so chemical management can continue to be one part in the resolving of bed bug infestations. There is growing interest in both synthetic pyrethroid and the pyrrole insecticide, chlorfenapyr. Insect growth regulators, such as hydroprene (Gentrol), are also sometimes used.
Populations in Arkansas have been found to be highly resistant to DDT, with an LD50 of more than 100,000 ppm. DDT was seen to make bed bugs more active in studies conducted in Africa.
Bed bug pesticide-resistance appears to be increasing dramatically. Bed bug populations sampled across the U.S. showed a tolerance for pyrethroids several thousands of times greater than laboratory bed bugs.  New York City bed bugs have been found to be 264 times more resistant to deltamethrin than Florida bed bugs due to mutations and evolution.
A population genetics study of bed bugs in the United States, Canada, and Australia using a mitochondrial DNA marker found high levels of genetic variation. This suggests the studied bed bug populations did not undergo a genetic bottleneck as one would expect from insecticide control during the 1940s and 1950s, but instead, that populations may have been maintained on other hosts such as birds and bats. In contrast to the high amount of genetic variation observed with the mitochondrial DNA marker, no genetic variation in a nuclear RNA marker was observed. This suggests increased gene flow of previously isolated bed bug populations, and given the absence of barriers to gene flow, the spread of insecticide resistance may be rapid.

Physical isolation

Isolation of humans is attempted with numerous devices and methods including zippered bed bug-proof mattress covers, bed-leg moat devices, and other barriers. However, even with isolated beds, bed bug infestations persist if the bed itself is not free of bed bugs, or if it is re-infested, which could happen quite easily.

Inorganic materials

Inorganic materials such as diatomaceous earth may be used in conjunction with other methods to manage a bed bug infestation, provided they are used in a dry environment. Upon contact with such dust-like materials, the insect's waxy outer layer of their exoskeletons is disrupted, which causes them to dehydrate.

Although occasionally applied as a safe indoor pesticide treatment for other insects, boric acid is ineffectual against bed bugs because bed bugs do not groom.

Organic materials

 

Bean leaves

A traditional Balkan method of trapping bed bugs is to spread bean leaves in infested areas. The trichomes (microscopic hooked hairs) on the leaves trap the bugs by piercing the tarsi joints of the bed bug's arthropod legs. As a bug struggles to get free, it impales itself further on the bean leaf's trichomes. The bed bugs and leaves then can be collected and destroyed. Researchers are examining ways to reproduce this capability with artificial materials.

Essential oils

Many claims have been made about essential oils killing bed bugs. However, they are unproven. The FTC is now filing a suit against companies making these claims.

Contaminated belongings

Disposal of items from the contaminated area can reduce the population of bed bugs and unhatched eggs. Removal of items such as mattresses, box springs, couches etc. is costly and usually insufficient to eradicate infestation because of eggs and adults hiding in surrounding areas. If the entire infestation is not eliminated prior to bringing new or cleaned personal and household items back into a home, these items will likely become infested and require additional treatment. Treating clothing, shoes, linens, and other household items within the affected environment is difficult and frequently ineffective because of the difficulty of keeping cleaned items quarantined from infestation. Many bed bug exterminating specialists recommend removing personal and household items from the infested structure. Many metropolitan areas offer more effective treatments such as high-heat dryers and dry cleaning with PERC with the added benefit of the treated items remaining stored until the affected home's bed bug infestation is eradicated

The improper disposal of infested furniture also facilitates the spread of bed bugs. Marking the discarded items as infested can help prevent infesting new areas. Items may also be sealed in plastic and stored until all eggs hatch and all larvae and adults have died. Bed bugs can go without feeding for 20 to 400 days, depending on temperature and humidity. Older stages of nymphs can survive longer without feeding than younger ones, and adults have survived without food for more than 400 days in the laboratory at low temperatures. Adults may live up to one year or more, and there can be up to four successive generations per year.

Vacuuming

Vacuuming helps with reducing bed bug infestations, but does not eliminate bed bugs hidden inside of materials. Also, unless the contents of the vacuum are emptied immediately after each use, bedbugs may crawl out through the vacuum's hoses and re-establish themselves.

Heat treatment

Steam

Steam treatment can effectively kill all stages of bed bugs. To be effective, steam treatment must reach 150–170 degrees for a sustained period. Unfortunately, bed bugs hide in a diversity of places, making steam treatment very tedious, labour-intensive and time consuming. There is also the risk of the steam not penetrating materials enough to kill hidden bed bugs. The steam may also damage materials such as varnished wood, or cause mold from the moisture left behind. Effective treatment requires repeated and very thorough steaming of the mattress, box spring, bed frame, bed covers, pillows, not to mention other materials and objects within the infested room, such as carpets and curtains.

Clothes dryers

Clothes dryers can be used for killing bed bugs in clothing and blankets. Infested clothes and bedding is first washed in hot water with laundry detergent then placed in the dryer for at least 20 minutes at high heat. However, this does not eliminate bed bugs in the mattress, bed frame and surrounding environment. Sterilized fabrics from the dryer are thus easily re-infested. Continually treating materials in this fashion is labour-intensive, and in itself does not eliminate the infestation.

Hot boxes

Placing belongings in a hot box, a device that provides sustained heat at temperatures that kills bedbugs, larvae, and eggs, but that does not damage clothing, is an option. Pest control companies often rent the devices at nominal cost and it may make sense for frequent travelers to invest in one.

Building heat treatment

This method of bed bug control involves raising room temperatures to or above the killing temperature for bed bugs, which is around 45 °C (113 °F). Heat treatments are generally carried out by professionals, and may be performed in a single area or an entire building. Heat treatment is generally considered to be the best method of eradication because it is capable of destroying an entire infestation with a single treatment.
For safety reasons, it is important that HEPA air filtration is used by your professional during any heat treatment to capture particulate and biological matter that may be aerosolized during the heating process.

Freezing

Many claims exist about the effectiveness of freezing Bedbugs. They vary from freezing works, it only works in extremely low temperatures, to it doesn't work at all. The theory is, in areas where outdoor temperatures drop below freezing, mattresses, couches, and other furniture can be placed outside for 24 hours allowing the bedbugs to freeze.

Fungus

Preliminary research has shown the fungus Beauveria bassiana, which has been used for years as an outdoor organic pesticide, is also highly effective at eliminating bed bugs exposed to cotton fabric sprayed with fungus spores. It is also effective against bed bug colonies due to the spores carried by infected bugs back to their harborages. Unlike typical insecticides, exposure to the fungus does not kill instantly, but all subjects died within 5 days of exposure. Some people, especially those with compromised immune systems, may react negatively to the concentrated presence of the fungus directly following an application.



Drugs

Early research shows that the common drug taken to get rid of parasitic worms, Ivermectin (Stromectol), also kills bed bugs when taken by humans at normal doses. The drug enters the human bloodstream and if the bedbugs bite during that time, the bedbug will die in a few days. Stromectol is also effective against mosquitoes, which can be useful controlling malaria.

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