Showing posts with label carpenter ants winter. Show all posts
Showing posts with label carpenter ants winter. Show all posts

Tuesday, 10 November 2015

Christmas tree cultivation | Pest Control London Ontario

Christmas tree cultivation is an agricultural, forestry, and horticultural occupation which involves growing pine, spruce, and fir trees specifically for use as Christmas trees.
The first Christmas tree farm was established in 1901, but most consumers continued to obtain their trees from forests until the 1930s and 1940s. Christmas tree farming was once seen only as a viable alternative for low-quality farmland, but that perception has changed within the agriculture industry. For optimum yield and quality, land should be flat or gently rolling and relatively free of debris and undergrowth.
A wide variety of pine and fir species are grown as Christmas trees, although a handful of varieties stand out in popularity. In the United States, Douglas-fir, Scots Pine and Fraser Fir all sell well. Nordmann Fir and Norway Spruce sell well in the United Kingdom, the latter being popular throughout Europe. Like all conifers, Christmas trees are vulnerable to a range of pests.
The final stage of cultivation, harvesting, is carried out in a number of ways; one of the more popular methods is the pick-your-own tree farm, where customers are allowed to roam the farm, select their tree, and cut it down themselves. Other farmers cultivate potted trees, with balled roots, which can be replanted after Christmas and used again the following year[edit]History
The practice of cultivating evergreens specifically to sell as Christmas trees dates back to 1901, when a 25,000 tree Norway Spruce farm was sown near Trenton, New Jersey.[1] The commercial market for Christmas trees had started fifty years earlier when a farmer from the Catskill Mountains brought trees into New York City to sell.[2] Despite these pioneering efforts, most people still obtained wild-grown Christmas trees from forests into the 1930s and 1940s.[3] More trees were grown in plantations after World War II, and by the 1950s farmers were shearing and pruning trees to meet customer demands. The Christmas tree market burgeoned through the 1960s and 1970s, but from the late 1980s onward prices and the market for natural Christmas trees declined. In the early 21st century, nearly 98 percent of all natural (non-artificial) Christmas trees sold worldwide were grown on tree farms.[4]

Cultivation

Land and climate

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This Christmas tree farm in southern Virginia is situated in a gently rolling valley.
Christmas tree farms are best located on relatively level land which is free of obstructions. In the past, Christmas tree farmers established their plantations on less desirable agricultural plots or “wastelands of agriculture”.[5] However, emphasis in modern Christmas tree farming has shifted toward the production of higher-quality trees, increasing land quality expectations as well.[5] Indeed, some species of tree, such as the Fraser Fir, are unable to grow on low-quality, marginal farmland.[6] Flat or gently rolling land is preferred to that with steep slopes and inclines, which is prone to erosion and fluctuations in fertility. Noticeable obstructions, such as rocks, fences or significant underbrush, are also undesirable.[5]
pest control london ontario
 
 
This Christmas tree farm in Iowa is located on flat ground and has well-mowed rows between the trees.
Like all crops and plants, Christmas trees require a specific set of nutrients to thrive.[7] There are 16 elements crucial for growth; of those, three are obtained through air and water: hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. Nitrogen,phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, copper, chlorine, manganese, molybdenum, iron, and zinc are obtained from the soil. If the necessary elements are not available in the local soil, nutritious fertilizers are used.[7] Other important soil considerations include pH and drainage.[8] Certain types of soil are preferable, depending on the type of tree. Pine trees are usually better adapted to a sandy or sandy loam soil,[9] while White Spruce trees and fir trees, such as the Douglas-fir, prefer fine-texture loams and clay loam soils.[9] Some trees grow well in all types of soil, but in any case, the land must be well-drained for a Christmas tree farm to have a chance of thriving.[9]
The weather, as with other agricultural endeavors, plays a key outcome in the yield of a Christmas tree farm. Severe cold in the winter and extreme hot and dry conditions during and after harvest can cause irreparable damage to the crop.[10] Early snow can make
both harvesting and shipping trees difficult or impossible.[10]

Labor and equipment

Christmas tree farming is a labor-intensive process. Depending on the quality of the land, bulldozing may need to be undertaken prior to planting, in order to remove obstacles such as large trees or rocks.[11] If the volume of undergrowth requires it, the soil may be tilled; tilling can help remove any debris remaining after tree or weed removal. Both woody plants and herbaceous weeds must be controlled prior to planting; this is most often done by application of a chemical herbicide.[11] In addition, some types of fertilizers must be introduced into the soil prior to planting.[11] The work done before planting tree seedlings plays an important role in the overall success of a Christmas tree crop.[10]
After the trees are in the ground, work on the crop continues. Animal pests (especially insects) and diseases must be monitored and controlled, and weed growth must also be minimized. Many species of pine and fir require pruning and shearing two to four years after planting to maintain the classic Christmas tree shape.[10] Late or omitted pruning can result in trees that are unmarketable due to large gaps in needle coverage. Some species of pine, such as the Scots Pine, are susceptible to dormant season “yellowing”, which is generally countered with a green dye or paint.[10][12]
The outlay of money on equipment varies greatly. Some items commonly found on Christmas tree farms are insecticide sprayers, tractors, and shaper sheers.[13] Mechanized planters, at a cost of about US$4,000, are not essential but a work-saving luxury for farmers.[13] Farmers can purchase seedlings, the lifeblood of a Christmas tree farm, from nurseries. One farmer in Oregon purchased seedlings for between US$200–300 per 1,000 plants. The farmer, a wholesaler, sold his final products for about $20 each; after the cost of the trees and other expenses, a profit of $2–3 per tree.[13]

Trees

pest control london ontario
 
 
Fraser Fir (cone and foliage pictured) is a popular species of Christmas tree in both the United States and Great Britain.
The best-selling species in the North American market are Scots Pine, Douglas-fir, Noble Fir, Balsam Fir, Fraser Fir, Virginia Pine, and Eastern White Pine, although other types of trees are also grown and sold.[4][14] In Alabama, for example, types of trees grown for use as Christmas trees include Eastern White Pine, Redcedar, Virginia Pine, Leyland Cypress, and Arizona Cypress.[15] In Florida, the Sand Pine and Spruce Pine are among the 20,000 grown in the state each year.[16]
pest control london ontario
 
 
Norway Spruce is a popular Christmas tree species in Europe.
In Great Britain, Nordmann Fir is a popular species, largely due to its needle-holding qualities.[17][18] Other popular trees in Britain are Norway Spruce, Serbian Spruce, and Scots Pine, the last of which is slightly rarer;[18] it has sharp needles which do not shed easily.[17]
In the U.S. Pacific Northwest, a major Christmas tree growing region, Douglas-fir has always been the primary species grown.[19] A full one-half of all trees produced in the Pacific Northwest are Douglas-fir.[19] Douglas-firs typically take five to seven years before they are mature enough to sell as Christmas trees.[19] Also common in the region are Noble Fir, a tree which commands a higher price than Douglas-fir, and Grand Fir, which accounts for about 10 percent of the annual harvest in the Northwest.[19] Other species collectively account for only 3–5 percent of the total Northwest harvest.[19]
In North America, Fraser Fir, grown in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina, has been called the “Cadillac of Christmas Trees” as well as the “most popular and most valuable of Christmas tree species”.[20] In the southern United States, Virginia Pine is a popular Christmas tree species.[21] In Canada, White Pine, White Spruce, Scots Pine, Blue Spruce and Fraser Fir are commonly cultivated.[22] In the province of Ontario, Scots Pine has always dominated both the domestic and export markets.[22] Other regions of the world also have different favorites when it comes to natural Christmas trees, and Christmas tree farms reflect these; In Europe, Norway Spruce is popular.[21]

Pests, disease and weeds

Main article: Christmas tree pests and weeds
pest control london ontario
 
 
An adult Balsam woolly adelgid, a major pest in the Christmas tree industry
Many of the conifer species cultivated face infestations and death from such pests as the Balsam woolly adelgid, other adelgids and aphids. Invasive insect species, such as the pine shoot beetle and the gypsy moth, also threaten Christmas tree crops.[23] Christmas trees are also vulnerable to fungal pathogens, resulting in such illnesses as root rot, and, in California, Washington, Oregon and British Columbia sudden oak death.[24] Douglas-fir trees are especially vulnerable to infections from plant pathogens such as R. pseudotsugaeand Rhabdocline weiriiR. weirii affects only Douglas-fir trees.[25][26] The pathogen often makes Douglas-fir trees unsaleable as Christmas trees and heavily affects the Christmas tree farming industry.[25]
Mammals such as deer, gophers and ground squirrels are also threats to Christmas tree crops, due to the damage they cause to roots and buds. Certain species of birds are also considered pests, including the Pine Grosbeak, which feeds on conifer buds,[27] usually affecting Scots Pine but also affecting Eastern White Pine and Red Pine, as well as spruce trees.[28] Herbaceous weeds, as well as woody plants, also compete with Christmas tree crops for water and nutrients, necessitating control methods including mowing, chemical herbicide use, and tilling.

Quality

USDA Christmas Tree Grades[29]
GradeRequirements[30]
U.S. PremiumFresh, clean, healthy, heavy density, one minor defect allowed[31]
U.S. No. 1Fresh, fairly clean, healthy, medium density, two minor defects allowed[32]
U.S. No. 2Fresh, fairly clean, healthy, light density,
three minor defects allowed[33]
Christmas tree quality grades have been in place since 1965 in Ontario, Canada, and were included under the provincial Farm Products Grades and Sales Act.[22] While the grades in Ontario are law, in the United States the grading system is not mandated. In fact, it is common for U.S. growers to develop their own grading systems.[34] The grading systems established by individual jurisdictions are often in the spirit of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) grading scheme, even if they are not entirely based upon them.[35] The Department of Agriculture’s United States Standards for Grades of Christmas Trees took effect on October 30, 1989, covering “sheared or unsheared trees of the coniferous species which are normally marketed as Christmas trees”.[29]

Harvest

See also: Christmas tree production
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Customers, armed with a saw, at a typical “choose-and-cut” Christmas tree farm
Christmas trees can be harvested and marketed in different ways. Some operations are known as “choose-and-cut” or pick-your-own farms, which allow customers to walk through the planted land, select their Christmas tree and cut down themselves.[8] Wholesale operations are more labor-intensive because they usually require the farmer to complete tasks such as baling, cutting, moving the trees to a roadside pick-up, and loading the harvest. In addition, this work must be completed during a very short period in November.[8] Growers also harvest trees by digging and balling the root and selling the trees as nursery stock or as live, reusable Christmas trees. This last option allows trees to be harvested earlier than the usual six to ten year period required to grow a mature Christmas tree.[8]
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Customers haul their own purchases off-site at choose-and-cut farms.
Larger farms began using helicopters to move tree harvests during the 1980s.[3] One 1,200-acre (490 ha) farm in Oregon lacked road access, so it began using helicopters to
move up to 200,000 Christmas trees per year.[36] Helicopters reduce the amount of time between harvesting and market, cutting it from up to two weeks down to as little as three days.[36]
Not all natural Christmas trees harvested are grown on plantations. In British Columbia, Canada, for example, most of the 900,000 trees harvested for use as Christmas trees came from native pine and fir stands.[37] The British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Ranges allows any resident of the province to cut a Christmas tree for free from Crown Lands, provided the individual receive prior permission in writing from a Forest Officer.[38] In the United States, the U.S. Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management offer permits for individual tree cutting on government land, mostly within the National Forest system.[39]

Farmers

The people who operate Christmas tree farms range from full-time growers to part-time farmers. One farmer in Minnesota, who began planting Christmas trees in 1967, gave his trees away for free from his modest 1-acre (4,000 m2) farm for ten years before establishing a tree farming business.[40] Other farmers started growing Christmas trees as a supplemental income for retirement or college funds,[41][42] or they worked farms that were not originally established as Christmas tree farms.[43][44]
Various national growers’ associations have been founded in Christmas tree producing nations. In the United Kingdom, the British Christmas Tree Growers Association is a trade association open to membership from Christmas tree farmers in Great Britain and Northern Ireland.[45] The National Christmas Tree Association serves a similar function in the United States.[46]

Environmental effect

In the United States, the National Christmas Tree Association (NCTA) promotes the environmental benefits of live Christmas trees over the competing artificial alternative.[47] The NCTA stated that every acre of Christmas trees in production produced the daily oxygen requirement for 18 people; with 500,000 acres (200,000 ha) in production in the U.S. alone, that amounts to oxygen for 9 million people per day.[47] The NCTA also stated that the farms help to stabilize the soil, protect water supplies and provide wildlife habitat.[47] In addition, the industry points to the reduction of carbon dioxide through Christmas tree farming.[48] An independent Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study, conducted by a firm of experts in sustainable development, states that a natural tree will generate 3.1 kg of greenhouse gases whereas the artificial tree will produce 8.1 kg per year.[49]
A 1998 report from the Michigan State University Agricultural Experiment Station predicted increasing environmental concerns about tree production and use as one possible reason people may favor artificial trees in the future. The report cited the use of fertilizers and pesticides and increasing concerns regarding tree disposal as the chief elements in its prediction.[50] Critics of tree farming have raised the concerns highlighted in the 1998 report, as well as other issues, such as the effect that large-scale tree farming operations have on biodiversity.[48] Pesticide use on Christmas tree farms is one of the main concerns of environmentalists;[48][51] fir trees are vulnerable to a wide array of pests and diseases which requires the use of pesticides and other chemicals including the widely-used herbicide glyphosate (brand name Roundup).[48] Glyphosate

Wednesday, 22 July 2015

Pavement Ants - A Pesky Problem in Ontario

Pavement ants, a common pest in Ontario, are just one of the 100+ species of ants in Canada. They are a small ant, ranging from about 2mm - 3mm in size. Pavement ants vary between black to a medium brown in colour and their legs are often a lighter brown colour. One identifying marker of pavement ants are the parallel groves found on their head and thorax, which are best seen when using a magnifying glass. 

Where do pavement ants live?


Just like their name indicates, pavement ants are found under stones, sidewalks, concrete slabs and at the edge of pavement. Many people notice the piles of dirt that have been excavated to make room for a nest; these dirt mounds can been seen on driveways and pavement. Pavement ants can also be found nesting under objects that are sitting on top of pavement, such as patio blocks, stones and so on. In the summer time pavement ants live outdoors, but
over the winter these ant colonies often move to the foundations of a house and
can sometimes be found indoors.

Photo Credit to Cyril Weerasooryia - https://www.flickr.com/photos/7609788@N04/6897564029/

What do pavement ants eat?


Pavement ants eat nearly any type of food including insects and honeydew from aphids, to animal food, seeds, meats, fruits, and starches - but their preference is greasy and sweet items. Pavement ants can become a nuisance when they are found foraging in homes for food. When found indoors, they are specifically looking for protein or sweet substances needed to feed the queen and the young.

How do you prevent pavement ants?


There are steps you can take inside and around your home to prevent pavement ants from becoming a problem. Sweep up! Cleanliness is important inside a home or business to avoid any foragers from entering in search of food. It’s also best practice to seal up any cracks in exterior walls to discourage ants from moving indoors. Repair any water leaks and watch for problematic foundation drainage. 


 Photo credit: Wikipedia

What treatments are there for pavement ants?


There are a number of ways to treat for pavement ants depending on a variety of factors. Often people want to know if they can treat for pavement ants themselves using products found in hardware stores. It is our experience that these treatments are only a temporary fix and don’t get to the core of the problem. We recommend that one of our professionals asses the situation in person, so that the correct treatment is used to maximize results. Typically, when a nest is located a liquid insecticide agent is used to flood the area. A residual insecticide is used on areas that the ants travel along, like cracks in a sidewalk. For interior problems we apply a dust into walls and baseboards of the home. We do ask that you leave your home for four hours after the treatment is applied to allow for proper drying time. 

 Sawyer Pest Management is licensed by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and is insured. Each of its service representatives is a fully licensed Structural Exterminator, fully trained and competent in the services they provide. Sawyer Pest Management does not employ unlicensed service technicians. 


Sawyer Pest Management is proud to provide service programs in the communities of London, Melbourne, Ingersoll, Aylmer, Port Stanley, Strathroy, St.Thomas, Parkhill, Grand Bend, Bayfield, Exeter, Lucan and St. Marys.

Thursday, 8 August 2013

Carpenter Ants in the Winter

Finding carpenter ants indoors in the winter is an indication that they are nesting somewhere within the walls or floors of the structure. Ants found in the summer are often invaders wandering in from outdoors, but since carpenter ants, like all insects, are cold blooded, ants active in the winter must be originating from a warmed source. Even if the air temperature is very cold, heat from the sun or the furnace may warm house walls and stir dormant ants to activity.
The critical factor in carpenter ant control remains treating the nesting area. Locating the nest site is very rarely easy, but it is essential for control. carpenter ants london ontario
I agree there are times it may be impossible to locate the nest, but I think it is possible more often than many people assume. The most likely sources of carpenter ants are still: window and door frames and sills, shower and tub enclosure walls, and kitchen and bath plumbing walls.
Carpenter ants do not always have to have moisture and wood decay for nesting. While it is true most nests and most damage will be in decayed wood, nests may be in sound timbers or even in dry cracks and joints between structural elements or in existing cavities such as hollow doors.
One of the goals of IPM and one of the reasons we encourage carpenter control by direct nest treatment is to limit the amount of pesticide applied. Special injector applicators are available to pest control operators, but homeowners can use drilled holes and crack and crevice treatment to reduce pesticide use and exposure. Dust insecticides provide better control of carpenter ants, IF they are applied as a thin even coating into nesting and traveling areas. Homeowner sprays can be effective but great effort is needed to place the insecticide where it will do the most good. This is one pest for which professional treatment may be worth the extra expense.
However, when you shop for carpenter ant treatment you should be aware of two “sales pitches.” First, I do not agree with the sales pitch that it will take a year of monthly treatments to get rid of carpenter ants. If migration from outdoors is a problem you might need retreatment, but to routinely prescribe monthly treatment, I think, is more insecticide exposure than is necessary.
The second variable among companies involves the method of application. Some companies want to systematically drill every wall void and inject an insecticide dust without any knowledge of where the nest is located. Personally, I find very little reason to follow this treatment approach. It appears that in Midwest homes where most walls are insulated with fiberglass batting or blown-in cellulose, a randomly placed application of dust into the wall void has little, if any, chance of moving much beyond the end of the applicator tip. High pressure dust applicators such as aerosols are likely to only blow a hole in the insulation with no further pesticide movement. If a wall is properly filled with insulation, the insecticide dust injected through the sheetrock or paneling will not cover the intended target, the wood of the studs and lower plate. Drill and dust treatments of every wall void increases the amount of pesticide used and greatly increases the cost to the consumer with little chance of enhanced success. Therefore, I do not, as a rule, favor the practice of treating every wall void, especially if walls are insulated.
An alternative to the through-the-wall void treatment is for the PCO to apply the dust with a power duster through existing openings such as around wall outlets, switch plates and pipe flanges. Research at Washington State University indicated the dust would drift along the utility lines such as electrical wires, conduits and plumbing lines, and coat the upper surfaces on which carpenter ants are known to walk. This type of dust treatment would be much more effective than treating a small spot within wall insulation.
None of the baits available at this time appear to be effective against carpenter ants. Certainly, the “sweet” liquid ant baits and feeding stations available to homeowners do not control carpenter ants according to the numerous “field observations” reported by dissatisfied homeowners. More effective and efficient baits that utilize the emerging understanding of ant nesting habits and foraging behavior are being developed and will be available within several READ MORE