Showing posts with label Pest Control Info. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Pest Control Info. Show all posts

Saturday, 10 August 2013

Pest control

Pest control refers to the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, usually because it is perceived to be detrimental to a person's health, the ecology or the economy.


History

Pest control is at least as old as agriculture, as there has always been a need to keep crops free from pests. In order to maximize food production, it is advantageous to protect crops from competing species of plants, as well as from herbivores competing with humans.
The conventional approach was probably the first to be employed, since it is comparatively easy to destroy weeds by burning them or plowing them under, and to kill larger competing herbivores, such as crows and other birds eating seeds. Techniques such as crop rotationcompanion planting (also known as intercropping or mixed cropping), and the selective breeding of pest-resistantcultivars have a long history.
In the UK, following concern about animal welfare, humane pest control and deterrence is gaining ground through the use of animal psychology rather than destruction. For instance, with the urbanRed Fox which territorial behaviour is used against the animal, usually in conjunction with non-injurious chemical repellents. In rural areas of Britain, the use of firearms for pest control is quite common. Airguns are particularly popular for control of small pests such as rats, rabbits and grey squirrels, because of their lower power they can be used in more restrictive spaces such as gardens, where using a firearm would be unsafe.
Chemical pesticides date back 4,500 years, when the Sumerians used sulfur compounds as insecticides. The Rig Veda, which is about 4,000 years old, also mentions the use of poisonous plants for pest control. It was only with the industrialization and mechanization of agriculture in the 18th and 19th century, and the introduction of the insecticides pyrethrum and derris that chemical pest control became widespread. In the 20th century, the discovery of several synthetic insecticides, such as DDT, and herbicides boosted this development. Chemical pest control is still the predominant type of pest control today, although its long-term effects led to a renewed interest in traditional and biological pest control towards the end of the 20th century.

Causes

pest control london ontario
Many pests have only become a problem because of the direct actions of humans. Modifying these actions can often substantially reduce the pest problem. In the United Statesraccoons caused a nuisance by tearing open refuse sacks. Many householders introduced bins with locking lids, which deterred the raccoons from visiting. House flies tend to accumulate wherever there is human activity and is virtually a global phenomenon, especially where food or food waste is exposed. Similarly, seagulls have become pests at many seaside resorts. Tourists would often feed the birds with scraps offish and chips, and before long, the birds would become dependent on this food source and act aggressively towards humans.
Living organisms evolve and increase their resistance to biological, chemical, physical or any other form of control. Unless the target population is completely exterminated or is rendered incapable of reproduction, the surviving population will inevitably acquire a tolerance of whatever pressures are brought to bear - this results in an evolutionary arms race.

Types of pest control

Biological pest contro

Biological pest control is the control of one through the control and management of natural predators and parasites. For example: mosquitoes are often controlled by putting Bt Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, a bacterium that infects and kills mosquito larvae, in local water sources. The treatment has no known negative consequences on the remaining ecology and is safe for humans to drink. The point of biological pest control, or any natural pest control, is to eliminate a pest with minimal harm to the ecological balance of the environment in its present form.[1]

Mechanical pest contro

Mechanical pest control is the use of hands-on techniques as well as simple equipment, devices, and natural ingredients that provide a protective barrier between plants and insects. For example: weeds can be controlled by being physically removed from the ground. This is referred to as tillage and is one of the oldest methods of weed control.

Elimination of breeding grounds

Proper waste management and drainage of still water, eliminates the breeding ground of many pests.
Garbage provides food and shelter for many unwanted organisms, as well as an area where still water might collect and be used as a breeding ground by mosquitoes. Communities that have proper garbage collection and disposal, have far less of a problem with rats, cockroaches, mosquitoes, flies and other pests than those that don't.
Open air sewers are ample breeding ground for various pests as well. By building and maintaining a proper sewer system, this problem is eliminated.
Certain spectrums of LED light can "disrupt insects’ breeding."[2]

Poisoned bait

Poisoned bait is a common method for controlling rat populations, however is not as effective when there are other food sources around, such as garbage. Poisoned meats have been used for centuries for killing off wolves, birds that were seen to threaten crops, and against other creatures. This can be a problem, since a carcass which has been poisoned will kill not only the targeted animal, but also every other animal which feeds on the carcass. Humans have also been killed by coming in contact with poisoned meat, or by eating an animal which had fed on a poisoned carcass. this tool is also used to manage several caterpillars e.g.Spodoptera litura,fruit flies,snails and slugs,crabs etc.

Field burning

Traditionally, after a sugar cane harvest, the fields are all burned, to kill off any insects or eggs that might be in the fields.

Hunting

Historically, in some European countries, when stray dogs and cats became too numerous, local populations gathered together to round up all animals that did not appear to have an owner and kill them. In some nations, teams of rat catchers work at chasing rats from the field, and killing them with dogs and simple hand tools. Some communities have in the past employed a bounty system, where a town clerk will pay a set fee for every rat head brought in as proof of a rat killing.

Traps

With the many traps available on the market today you can easily remove mice and rats from homes. You must first know what rodent needs to be removed, you can then decide what type of trap is the best suited to your needs. The snap trap is the most widely used, it utilizes a trigger (sometimes shaped like cheese) to hold bait, and kills the rodent by striking it behind the head with a wire rod or jaw. In some instances you may wish to use glue traps also called glue boards. This type of trap requires the mouse or rat to attempt to cross the trap so the glue can hold the rodent. After a catch is made you can euthanize the rodent and dispose of it trap and all, or some glue boards will release the catch when you pour vegetable oil on them, as the oil reacts with the glue to lose its grip. The last type of trap are live catch traps, this type of trap is typically a repeating style so more than one animal can be caught at a time, they can also be released from this trap in a new location if desired.

Pesticides

Spraying pesticides by planes, handheld units, or trucks that carry the spraying equipment, is a common method of pest control. Crop dusters commonly fly over farmland and spray pesticides to kill off pests that would threaten the crops. However, some pesticides may cause cancer and other health problems, as well as harming wildlife.[3]

Space fumigation

A project that involves a structure be covered or sealed airtight followed by the introduction of a penetrating, deadly gas at a killing concentration a long period of time (24-72hrs.). Although expensive, space fumigation targets all life stages of pests.[4]

Space treatment


pest control london ontario
A long term project involving fogging or misting type applicators. Liquid insecticide is dispersed in the atmosphere within a structure. Treatments do not require the evacuation or airtight sealing of a building, allowing most work within the building to continue but at the cost of the penetrating effects. Contact insecticides are generally used, minimizing the long lasting residual effects. On August 10, 1973, the Federal Register printed the definition of Space treatment as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):[4]
the dispersal of insecticides into the air by foggers, misters, aerosol devices or vapor dispensers for control of flying insects and exposed crawling insects

Sterilization

Laboratory studies conducted with U-5897 (3-chloro-1,2-propanediol) where attempted in the early 1970s although these proved unsuccessful.[5]Research into sterilization bait is ongoing.
Another effective method of soil sterilization is soil steaming. Pest is killed through hot steam which is induced into the soil.

Destruction of infected plants

Forest services sometimes destroy all the trees in an area where some are infected with insects, if seen as necessary to prevent the insect species from spreading. Farms infested with certain insects, have been burned entirely, to prevent the pest from spreading elsewhere.

Natural rodent control

Several wildlife rehabilitation organizations encourage natural form of rodent control through exclusion and predator support and preventing secondary poisoning altogether.[6]
The United States Environmental Protection Agency agrees, noting in its Proposed Risk Mitigation Decision for Nine Rodenticides that “without habitat modification to make areas less attractive to commensal rodents, even eradication will not prevent new populations from recolonizing the habitat.”[7]

Repellents


Thursday, 8 August 2013

Electronic Pest Control

Electronic pest control is the name given to the use of any of the several types of electrically powered devices designed to repel or eliminate pests, usually rodents or insects.
Numerous electronic pest control devices are readily available throughout the world. Hardware stores and garden centers usually stock some sort of electronic device advertised to repel a variety of pests and one can also find them on the…… More
black widow
Black Widow

A Very Unwelcome Guest!

These are definitely not the types of critters we like to come across. Unfortunately, they are one of the most resilient and persistent critters we commonly have to deal with. If you find yourself coming across issues with these little guys (sometimes large), give Sawyer Pest Management a call at 519-661-6886.

How to Keep Bed Bugs from Biting



Find out how to avoid this common pest issue from this CBC News Health Article on Bed Bugs.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the disease. For the insect known as bedbug, see Bedbug.
A number of health effects may occur due to bedbugs including skin rashes, psychological effects and allergic symptoms.[1] Bedbug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters.[2]:446 Diagnosis involves both finding bedbugs and the occurrence of compatible symptoms.[1] Treatment involves the elimination of the insect but is otherwise symptomatic.[1]
Because infestation of human habitats has been on the increase in developed countries, bedbug bites and related conditions have been on the rise as well, since the 1980s-1990s.[3][4] The exact causes of this resurgence remain unclear; it is variously ascribed to greater foreign travel, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings among homes, a greater focus on control of other pests resulting in neglect of bedbug countermeasures, and increasing resistance to pesticides.[4][5] Bedbugs have been known human parasites for thousands of years.[3] SEE MORE
Useful Links
Bed Bugs Make a Come Back in Chatham, Ontario (August/2010)
http://www.chathamdailynews.ca/ArticleDisplay.aspx?e=2706685
Health Canada on Bed Bugs in South Western Ontario
http://thehealthline.ca/displayArticle.aspx?id=841

Pest Management Services for the Control of Rodents

By Ryan Sawyer
It is the responsibility of the Pest Management Professional (PMP) to work in partnership with each of its clients to develop and implement an effective rodent control program that will provide fast effective control when required and to reduce or prevent reoccurrences from happening. There are two species of rodents which cause most concerns in Ontario: Norway Rats and House Mice. In addition to these two species Deer Mice, Roof Rats, Shrews and Voles can cause problems in residential and commercial properties.
norway rat
Norway Rat
Properly implemented rodent control programs protect residential properties and commercial establishments and the individuals living and working in these types of facilities from illness, mental distress, economic loss and damage caused by rodents. Effective monitoring, inspection and treatment programs must be completed on a regularly scheduled basis. Such programs comprise client education, recommend sanitation improvements, structural modifications and exclusion services when required, and utilize mechanical controls and, when warranted, chemical controls to achieve a rodent free environment. The combined use of these tactics and control measures is often referred to as Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
house mice
House Mice
The effectiveness of a rodent control program will often depend on “good housekeeping” and the reduction of food and harborage. Spilt food product, heavy vegetation growth and debris accumulations within and on the exterior of a property will require removal. In addition to removing food and harborage the implementation of proper food storage and rotation practices will be required. Reducing food availability and harborage will cause stress to the population, limit population growth, and eliminate hiding and nesting areas in addition to allowing the PMP complete a more effective site inspection and service program.
shrew
Shrew

Building rodents out of a structure also known as (“exclusion”) is one the best way to prevent or reduce new entries from occurring. There is still some risk of entries occurring from the importation of goods into the structure; however, this risk can be mitigated through the inspection of incoming goods and materials and a properly implemented service program. When completing a rodent exclusion program all gaps and cracks greater then .6cm or 1/4′” must be sealed to prevent rats and mice from gaining entry. Copper mesh, course steel wool, tight-fitting weather strips, concrete, sheet metal, hardware cloth and caulking are materials that can be used to prevent rodents from gaining entry into a structure. Exclusion services are offered by many PMP’s as an additional service.
deer mouse
Deer Mouse
Monitoring and treatment programs to control existing infestation or to allow for the preventative maintenance of a property must incorporate the following: thorough site inspections; proper device selection, placement, and service; documentation of each service provided with recommendations when required; documentation of findings thus allowing for future trending documentation.
roof rat
Roof Rat

Interior and exterior site inspections identify sanitation and structural conditions that are conducive to infestation and current activity that may be present. Properly completed inspections are not limited to just inspecting the ground or perimeter but look at the entire building and grounds.
Monitoring and treatment programs for the control of rodents utilize different products and materials depending on the species requiring control. In most cases a combination of products and materials are selected and strategically placed to provide maximum results. The materials selected for use will depend on the type of property requiring control and the product being sold or produced. Generally, for the control of rodents, a combination of mechanical traps, glue boards, and interior and exterior tamper-resistant bait stations will be selected for the control of and prevention of activity. Ultrasonic devices have been recommended for the control and prevention of rodents; unfortunately, there are limitations to these types of control devices making them impractical for use in most circumstances.
vole
Vole
The level of documentation required will vary depending on account type and the individual site needs. At a minimum, the service documentation must include the findings of the inspection, the materials used and type of service provided the name of service provider, and date of service. For accounts producing food material or exporting goods, documentation may include programs identifying contractual requirements of the site and service provider, site maps containing all device placements, approved MSDS and product labels, device capture and trending history, materials used, license and insurance verification, site communication and audit history etc.
In conclusion, an effectively implemented service program is a partnership between a PMP and a property owner. It is the responsibility of the PPM to educate the client and to select the safest and most effective materials that are available to insure a rodent free environment is maintained. It is the responsibility of the property owner to make sanitation and structural improvements when required to reduce site risk and to ask questions when additional information is required.
Did You Know?
Norway Rats have 4-7 litters of 8-12 young per year and are capable of reproduction at 2-3 months of age.

House Mice have approximately 8 litters of 4-7 young per year and are capable of reproducing in at 1.5-2 months of age.

National Geographic – Parasites attack and Ant

Pest Control, Pest Management, Ant Control, Rodent Control, Bed Bug Control, Termite Control



Spring Pest Control Tips

spring pest control london ontario
Spring clean-up to prevent insects from entering home
Homeowners are likely to start finding unwanted pests in and around their homes as we transition from the colder wet winter months to warmer spring months. The following are some simple steps homeowners can take to reduce their risk of pest control problems:
Pest Control Tips In the Kitchen
- Store food in airtight containers. Open packages of pasta, rice, and baking goods (i.e. flour, oatmeal, cornmeal) should be placed in the freezer and frozen for 72 hours, then placed in airtight containers, or thrown away to reduce the chance of insects infesting the pantry.
- Always wipe down sticky containers. Bottles of sticky substances such as syrup and other sauces or condiments should be wiped down with warm soapy water to reduce the chance of ant infestation.
- Throw away spoiled food right away. Items such as old potatoes, onions, and other vegetables should be checked for spoilage to avoid fruit fly infestation or attack from ants, crickets, earwigs, etc.
- Freeze candy and chocolate. Put leftover holiday candy and other treats in the freezer to avoid attracting insects into your pantry.
Pest Control Tips Throughout the House
- Clean your doors and windows. Thoroughly vacuum and clean window and sliding door tracks to help prevent outside invaders such as carpet beetles, earwigs, silverfish and spiders.
- Don’t let the bed bugs bite! After house guests leave, carefully inspect closets, drawers, and beds/sofas for bed bugs that may have inadvertently been brought in. Also, after you travel, carefully clean or vacuum all luggage inside and out, and then store it in tightly sealed plastic garbage bags.
- Store away wool and fur-trimmed clothing. During warm weather months, wash and store away wool and fur-trimmed or -lined clothing in sealed containers or plastic bags to reduce the chance of moth or carpet beetle activity. READ MORE

Pest Control for London On

pest control london on
Bed Bug Bites
They’ve fed on people for thousands of years, and now, if the local health officer has his way, they’ll gnaw on the wallets of Ontario taxpayers.
Bed bugs have been a nuisance for millennium but it was only last year Ontario Health Minister Deb Matthews declared her government would spend $5 million to fight the insect, including $180,000 for the Middlesex-London Health Unit.
The money was meant for a single year so health officials could teach citizens how best to prevent infestations and get rid of those that occurred.
But with the next provincial budget a couple of months away, the local medical officer of health wants to make the funding permanent.
Dr. Graham Pollett will ask the health board at a meeting Thursday to request the Health ministry include funding to combat bed bugs in the base budgets of the province’s health units.
Pollett pointed to the success of a “bed bug hotline” as one reason to permanently place taxpayers on the hook for funding.
“The hotline was opened in June 2011 and the number of calls SEE MORE

Pest Control London On – Bed Bugs


If you think you don’t need to worry about bed bugs in London, talk to the London International Academy boarding school students.
Or better yet, take a close look at them.
It won’t take long to find clusters of red bug bites on the students — whose parents pay $20,000 per year for accommodation at the Park Tower on King St. and pre-university courses at the downtown private school.
“Right here,” said one teen yesterday, rolling up his sleeve to show where he was bitten the week before. “My neck,” said another, gesturing to a grouping of six angry red welts just under his chin.
Many of the students have arrived during the past month to start school meant to prepare them for Canadian university. Their English is still spotty, but when stopped out front of their residence at 186 King Street Thursday, all were familiar with the term bed bugs.
“Oh yes bed bugs,” said one boy, who declined to give his name or have his picture taken. “I’ve been here two weeks. I was bit three or four nights.
“I don’t sleep well.”
Another student said he had seen the bugs and killed some, but still he wakes up with bites “every night.”
Inspectors with the Middlesex-London Health Unit are aware of the situation at the building, said environmental health director Wally Adams.
He said a health unit inspector called out for something else in August noticed some bed bugs and ordered the building manager to “beef up integrated pest management measures.
When the inspector returned Aug. 23, he was satisfied that the manager had complied. SEE MORE

We take care of all Pest Control Issues Below;

bedbugs

bed bug control london on
Bed bugs are parasitic insects that prefer to feed on human blood.[2] The term is used loosely to refer to any species of the genus Cimex, and even more loosely to refer to any member of the family Cimicidae (cimicids).[3] The common bedbug, Cimex lectularius, is the most famous species of the family.[3][4] The name of the “bed bug” is derived from the insect’s preferred habitat of houses and especially beds or other areas where people sleep. Bed bugs are mainly active at night but are not exclusively nocturnal and are capable of feeding READ MORE


fleas

flea control london ontario

Fleas are the insects forming the order Siphonaptera. They are wingless, with mouthparts adapted for piercing skin and sucking blood. Fleas are external parasites, living by hematophagy off the blood of mammals (including bats and humans) and birds. READ MORE



cockroaches

cockroach control london on
Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattaria or Blattodea, of which about 30 species out of 4,500 total are associated with human habitations. About four species are well known as pests.[1][2]
Among the best-known pest species are the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, which is about 30 millimetres (1.2 in) long, the German cockroach,Blattella germanica, about 15 millimetres (0.59 in) long, the Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai, also about 15 millimetres (0.59 in) in length, and the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis, about 25 millimetres (0.98 in). Tropical cockroaches READ MORE

wasps

wasp control london on

The term wasp is typically defined as any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.[1] Almost every pest insect species has at least one wasp species that preys upon it or parasitizes it, making wasps critically important in natural control of their numbers, or natural biocontrol. Parasitic waspsare increasingly used in agricultural pest control as they prey mostly on pest insects and have little impact READ MORE


ants

ant control london on
Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae (play /f?r?m?s?di?/) and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than 12,500 out of an estimated total of 22,000 species have been classified.[3][4] They are easily identified by their elbowed antennae and a distinctive node-like structure that forms a slender waist.
Ants form colonies that range in size from a few dozen READ MORE

flies

flies control london on

True flies are insects of the order Diptera (from the Greek di = two, and ptera = wings). They possess a pair of wings on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres, derived from the hind wings, on the metathorax. Apart from secondarily flightless insects (including some flies), the only other order of insects with any form of halteres are theStrepsiptera, and theirs are on the mesothorax, with the flight wings on READ MORE


birds

bird control london on

Birds (class Aves) are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrate animals. With around 10,000 living species, they are the mostspeciose class of tetrapod vertebrates. All present species belong to the subclass Neornithes, and inhabit ecosystems across the globe, from the Arctic to the Antarctic.Extant birds range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) Bee Hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) Ostrich. The fossil record indicates that birds emerged within theropod dinosaursduring the Jurassic period, around 160 million years READ MORE

rats

rat control london on
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents of the superfamily Muroidea. “True rats” are members of the genus Rattus, the most important of which to humans are theblack rat, Rattus rattus, and the brown rat, Rattus norvegicus. Many members of other rodent genera and families are also referred to as rats, and share many characteristics with true rats.
Rats are typically distinguished from mice by their size; rats are generally large muroid rodents, while mice are generally small muroid rodents. The muroid family is very large and complex, and the common terms READ MORE 

mice

mouse control london on

mouse (plural: mice) is a small mammal belonging to the order of rodents. The best known mouse species is the common house mouse (Mus musculus). It is also a popular pet. In some places, certain kinds of field mice are also common. This rodent is eaten by large birds such as hawks and eagles. They are known to invade homes for food and occasionally shelter.
The American White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), as well as other common species of mouse-like rodents around the world, also sometimes live READ MORE


moths

moths london on
moth is an insect related to the butterfly, both being of the order Lepidoptera. Moths form the majority of this order; there are thought to be about 160,000 species of moth (nearly ten times the number of species of butterfly),[1] with thousands of species yet to be described. Most species of moth are nocturnal, but there are crepuscular anddiurnal species. READ MORE



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Poisonous Spiders in Ontario

Although most spiders inject venom into their prey, few are harmful to humans. Ontario is home to the very poisonous black widow spider. The more commonly seen yellow sac spider is far less venomous, and brown recluse spiders, not indigenous to Ontario, may only be spotted on extremely rare occasions.

  1. Black Widow

    • The female black widow is poisonous and the spider is noted for a red hourglass marking on the underside of its shiny black abdomen. Five different species of black widow inhabit North America, including Ontario.
      Black widows live under fallen trees or under rocks. They also like to inhabit secluded areas like sheds, garages, basements and crawl spaces. Firewood piles are a common home and people who are bitten by black widows often report they were moving firewood when the bite occurred.
      An Oakville woman was hospitalized by a black widow bite in 2009. She had been bitten while gardening and almost immediately suffered blurred vision, numbness and profuse sweating. Black widows inject a neurotoxin which affects the nervous system. Other symptoms may include fever, elevated blood pressure and dizziness. Less than one percent of black widow bites are fatal.
      The spider is rarely seen in Ontario, and only two other reported sightings occurred in 2009, one in Mississauga and one in Bolton. Even over the past several decades, reports of the spider were rare and occurred in London, Barrie, Bruce Peninsula and in the Georgian Bay Islands.

    Yellow Sac

    • The yellow sac spider’s habitat is mainly the northeastern United States, but it has also been reported in Toronto and the southern part of Ontario. It is a pale straw color with darker fangs. Inside the home, it often nests and resides in cocoon-like webs, hunting for insects at night. Outside, it is found near decks and porches. This spider has a one-year lifespan in Ontario, wintering inside homes.
      The yellow sac’s bite is sometimes confused with that of the brown recluse, but there is rarely any necrosis, and the symptoms are not as severe.

    Brown Recluse

    • The brown recluse has a violin-shaped marking on its thorax, which gives rise to this spider’s nickname, fiddleback.
      This spider is not accustomed to Ontario’s climate and may only be found after inadvertently traveling on goods shipped in from the mid-western and southern United States. In 2007, a man from Caesarea reported a spider bite with accompanying fever, extreme swelling and a lesion that are consistent with the symptoms of a brown recluse bite, but the spider was not positively identified. He was bitten after handling fruit.