Showing posts with label Lucan Ontario. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Lucan Ontario. Show all posts

Thursday, 8 August 2013

HOW TO IDENTIFY A COCKROACH

One of the most common household bug infestation problems is the cockroach. Cockroaches hide in small nooks and crannies. An infestation of cockroaches can be dealt with, but it is first necessary to identify the kind of cockroaches living in your home. Many people don’t know that there are actually 5 different types of cockroaches that are categorized as pests. Knowing how to identify a cockroach will make treating the problem much easier.

1. Count the six legs of the specimen – a cockroach has 6 legs.
  1. pest control london ontario
  2. 2
    Check to see if your specimen has a hard exoskeleton
    pest control london ontario
  3. 3
    Look for thin, transparent wings. Thin, transparent wings belong to a cockroach while hard, opaque wings belong to a beetle. Do note, however, that cockroaches that are not yet fully mature will not have wings. 
    pest control london ontario
  4. 4
    Observe the long, flat, wide body of the insect. All cockroaches have a long, flat, and wide body.
    pest control london ontario
  5. 5
    Look for a set of long antennae on the front of his head.
    pest control london ontario
  6. 6
    Look at the brown or black color of the cockroach. German cockroaches and American cockroaches both have a reddish brown color. Oriental cockroaches have a black, shiny color. Brown banded cockroaches and a smoky brown cockroach, on the other hand, have a very dark brown color.
    pest control london ontario
  7. 7
    Measure the cockroach by placing the specimen on a piece of white paper in front of a ruler. If it is between 1.5 to 2 inches (3.8 to 5.0 cm) in length it is probably an American cockroach, the largest of the 5 pestilent cockroaches. If it is just slightly smaller, it is probably a smoky brown cockroach. Oriental cockroaches are about 1.2 inches (3.0 cm) in length with short, unusable wings. German cockroaches are small, only approximately 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) in length.
    pest control london ontario
  8. 8
    Look for any additional markings like stripes or color changes on the body of the cockroach. German cockroaches have 2 black stripes right behind it’s head, and brown banded cockroaches have light brown lines wrapping around it’s abdomen.
    pest control london ontario

Electronic Pest Control

Electronic pest control is the name given to the use of any of the several types of electrically powered devices designed to repel or eliminate pests, usually rodents or insects.
Numerous electronic pest control devices are readily available throughout the world. Hardware stores and garden centers usually stock some sort of electronic device advertised to repel a variety of pests and one can also find them on the…… More
black widow
Black Widow

Bed bugs bite into housing budget – London Free Press

Bed bug infestations that have skin crawling across North America haven’t spared London, where the city-run public housing agency’s pest-control budget has increased 10-fold.
bed bug bite
Bed Bug Bite
Now that’s a pricey pest.
“It’s ballooned,” Derek Grater, acting chief executive of the London & Middlesex Housing Corp., said of the pest-fighting costs. “It’s all bed bugs.”
In recent years, the housing body — which provides subsidized public housing in London and Middlesex County — spent about $20,000 a year fighting pests.
Now? The tab has hit $200,000, almost all of it going to pay exterminators to battle bed bugs.
And Grater says he’d like to add $186,000 to hire two people to handle the infestations, though he expects that will be delayed at least a year.
“It’s really increased our workload tremendously,” he said. “We’re trying to re-organize the staff we do have to better handle the issue.”
The problem appears to have spread far beyond public housing in London.
Sawyer Pest Control owner Ryan Sawyer says about 40% of his business is bed-bug related — early in his 14-year career, he never dealt with them — and the calls come from everywhere. SEE MORE
We are locally owned and operated, servicing 

London Ontario, Strathroy, Ingersoll, Dorchester, Exeter, Lucan, Goderich, Grandbend, and Bayfield Ontario

Bedbug Checklist

bed bugs london ontarioHere are some quick tips to make sure your room (hotel rooms, bedrooms, living areas, etc) isn’t infested with bedbugs! Most people who end up having their home infested with bedbugs could have prevented it by looking for the signs below. If you have bedbugs (rather than looking for them), then check out our Bed Bug Treatment page.
The first thing you can do is find reviews of the hotel you’re staying at by searching the internet. We can do that for you if you prefer, simply leave a comment asking us to check your hotel [include the name and address of the hotel in your comment] and we’ll post the results under your comment. Keep in mind that a report about one hotel does not mean the issue wasn’t isolated to one room, or that hotel management hasn’t since exterminated the bugs.
When staying at a hotel, hang clothing in the closet that is farthest from your bed, place luggage on the folding rack usually found at hotels and always place your luggage in a plastic bag (hotel provided dry cleaning bags work great).
When you inspect a room for bedbugs, make sure you wear disposable medical gloves! Bedbugs gorge on the blood of humans, so much so that they can easily pop with very little pressure. When a bedbug pops, it will splatter blood and you may be exposed!
Picture of Bed Bugs, their eggs, shells and feces! This is a high resolution photo of what a bed bug infested mattress looks like including their shells, eggs and feces. You can zoom in on the picture if you need to.
  • After you arrive at your hotel, the first thing you should do is to spot check the bed. Peel back the bed sheets and check the mattress, running your fingers along the upper and lower seams. Make sure to check the mattress tag and plastic around the edges (see the picture above); bed bugs often hide there.
  • Check for tiny black spots (smaller than the size of poppy seeds) behind the headboard, translucent skins or actual bedbugs. Bed bug spots (fecal matter) are dark brown to black in color and stick to the surface. If it falls off, then it’s not a bed bug spot. You can also take a wet towel and wipe the spot to see if it smears and if so, then it may be fecal matter.  READ MORE

Ontario Insects – Endangered Species

pest control london ontarioTwo important Ontario laws that pertain to insects are the Ontario Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act, 1997 and the Ontario Endangered Species Act, 2007. The former Act has been amended effective December 15, 2009 by the Good Government Act, 2009, while the latter Act has not been amended since it was passed. The text of both laws is available on the Ontario government’s e-laws website.
The December 15, 2009 changes to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act were very minor and affected only the list of specially protected invertebrates. The Canadian Tiger Swallowtail (P. canadensis) was added to the list, and the Latin names of other species on the list were updated to reflect current biological literature.
The federal government protects endangered species through the Species at Risk Act. See the Species at Risk Public Registry for the species protected by this law.
The two Ontario laws are described in detail below.
Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act (Ontario)
There are two main types of provisions in the law.
(1) One type applies to “wildlife”, which includes all animals that are wild by nature. This would appear to include invertebrates (including insects).
(2)The other type applies to “specially protected wildlife”, which includes “specially protected invertebrates” as one category. Certain butterflies are part of that.
a) Collecting in Provincial Parks
Subsection 9(1) makes it illegal to hunt, trap or possess wildlife in a provincial park or Crown game preserve.
This issue is also addressed in Ontario’s Provincial Parks and Conservations Reserves Act, 2006. In respect of provincial parks, paragraph (2)(a) of Regulation 347/07 under this Act states “(2) Except with the written authorization of the superintendent, no person shall, (a) disturb, cut, kill, remove or harm any plant, tree or natural object in a provincial park…” Although “natural object” is not defined, it appears to be broad enough to include insects.
b) Release of Imported Insects
The FWCA makes it illegal to release in Ontario any wildlife or invertebrates that is imported into Ontario or originates from stock that is imported into Ontario (section 54).
This rule does not only apply to exotic species; there appears to be no exemption for releases of species which naturally occur in Ontario. Thus, for example, if a person ordered eggs of the cecropia silkmoth from a dealer in Prince Edward Island and then released in Ontario the caterpillars or adults resulting from those eggs, he or she would be contravening the law.
c) Species Protected Elsewhere
A person shall not possess any wildlife or invertebrates that were killed, captured etc. contrary to laws of another jurisdiction or that were removed from another jurisdiction contrary to the laws of that jurisdiction (subsection 58 (1)). For example, it is illegal to have in one’s collection any insects that were caught in violation of another country’s endangered species laws.
d) All Ontario – Particular Species
The FWCA has major implications for people who raise insects, collect insects, or trade or exchange dead insect specimens.
Various activities in respect of any “specially protected invertebrate” are not allowed. These include the following.
-hunting or trapping (i.e., collecting): subsection 5(1).
-propagating (i.e., breeding): subsection 45(1)
-keeping in captivity (i.e., rearing and possibly also banding): subsection 40(1)
-buying or selling, including exchanging or bartering: subsection 48(1). Gifting is apparently not prohibited.
The penalties for violating these rules range from $150 to $250 per instance. However, it may be possible to be exempted from this rules through obtaining a licence from the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. This is discussed further below.
Schedule 11 to the Act defines “specially protected invertebrate” as follows:
  • Karner Blue (L. melissa samuelis)
  • Monarch (D. plexippus)
  • West Virginia White (P. virginiensis)
  • Mottled Duskywing (E. martialis)
  • Bog Elfin (C. lanoraieensis)
  • Frosted Elfin (C. irus)
  • Black Swallowtail (P. polyxenes)
  • Giant Swallowtail (P. cresphontes)
  • Old World Swallowtail (P. machaon)
  • Pipevine Swallowtail (P. philenor)
  • Spicebush Swallowtail (P. troilus)
  • Eastern Tiger Swallowtail (P. glaucus)
  • Canadian Tiger Swallowtail (P. canadensis)
  • Zebra Swallowtail (E. marcellus)
Note that this list includes not only rare or endangered species but also many common species, notably monarch butterflies and all Ontario species of swallowtail butterflies. The list includes only butterflies — no moths or other insects are included.
The above rules apply not only to living insects but also dead specimens or any part of a specimen (subsection 1(2)). The insect need not originate in Ontario to be included. Thus, the purchase of Zebra Swallowtail specimens READ MORE

Seasonal Pest Control

When the seasons change, so do the pests that come with them. For information, please continue reading below.
Here are some of the pests that may show up during the different seasons in Ontario.

Paper wasps are 0.7 to 1.0 inch (1.8 to 2.5 cm)-long wasps that gather fibers from dead wood and plant stems, which they mix with saliva, and use to construct water-resistant nests made of gray or brown papery material. Paper wasps are also sometimes called umbrella wasps, due to the distinctive design of their nests[1] or other regional variants such as Trinidad & Tobago’s use of Jack Spaniard.[2]
Paper wasps like to stay in the attic during the winter months and/or walls, and they re-appear during the intial warm day period in March or April, staying until late fall.

Carpenter ants are large (.25 to 1 in/0.64 to 2.5 cm) ants indigenous to many parts of the world. They prefer dead, damp wood in which to build nests. They do not eat it, however, unlike termites.[1] Sometimes carpenter ants will hollow out sections of trees. The most likely species to be infesting a house in the United States is the black carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus). However, there are over a thousand other species in the genus Camponotus.
Carpenter ants are more active during early spring inside the home, and sometimes continue into the summer. Look for them on the outside of your home, near trees and/or shrubs.

The Little Black Ant (Monomorium minimum) is a species of ant. Members of the species are tiny and shiny black in color. These ants are usually found outdoors or in wood inside a home that causes it to decay.
Workers are 1/16 inch in length and the queens are 1/8 inch in length. Also the Soldiers are 1/13 of an inch in length. There may be 100, 000 in one colony. They use recruitment to deal more effectively with large prey. They form colonies with multiple queens.
Ants give birth to live pupa. Ant pupa laid by the queen can take just 10 days to mature. Winged ants may fly away and start a new colony if the current colony is overpopulated.
Small ants are one of the most common problems we come across in the Summer. They often stay outside of the home in gardens and patio stone walkways.
Carpenter bees (the genus Xylocopa in the subfamily Xylocopinae) are large bees distributed worldwide. There are some 500 species of carpenter bee in 31 subgenera.[1] Their name comes from the fact that nearly all species build their nests in burrows in dead wood, bamboo, or structural timbers (except those in the subgenus Proxylocopa, which nest in the ground). Members of the related tribe Ceratinini are sometimes referred to as “small carpenter bees”.
Carpenter bees show up in the Spring and stay around well into the summer. Infestations cause woodpeckers to poke holes into trees attempting to eat the larvae. This damage is serious and harms the trees.
Mud dauber (sometimes called “dirt dauber,” “dirt digger,” “dirt dobber,” “dirt diver”, or “mud wasp”) is a name commonly applied to a number of wasps from either the family Sphecidae or Crabronidae that build their nests from mud. Mud dauber may refer to any of the following common species:
Mud dauber wasps are around all summer long. They like to be around water, shrubs, bush, and flowers to hunt for caterpillars and spiders. They can build up into large numbers around your home, although not usually aggressive.

Yellowjacket is the common name in North America for predatory wasps of the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula. Members of these genera are known simply as “wasps” in other English-speaking countries. Most of these are black and yellow; some are black and white (such as the bald-faced hornet, Dolichovespula maculata), while others may have the abdomen background color red instead of black. They can be identified by their distinctive markings, small size (similar to a honey bee), their occurrence only in colonies, and a characteristic, rapid, side to side flight pattern prior to landing. All females are capable of stinging. Yellowjackets are important predators of pest insects.[1]
Yellow Jackets start in the Spring and are easy to treat early. By late summer or fall however, they are more difficult to deal with.
A mouse (plural: mice) is a small mammal belonging to the order of rodents, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail. The best known mouse species is the common house mouse (Mus musculus). It is also a popular pet. In some places, certain kinds of field mice are also common. This rodent is eaten by large birds such as hawks and eagles. They are known to invade homes for food and occasionally shelter.
Mice are an issue more so in the Summer, gaining access to the home through the garage or attic.

The mosquitoes are a family of small, midge-like flies: the Culicidae. Although a few species are harmless or even useful to humanity, most are a nuisance because they consume blood from living vertebrates, including humans. In feeding on blood, various species of mosquitoes transmit some of the most harmful human and livestock diseases. Some authorities argue accordingly that mosquitoes are the most dangerous animals on earth.[2]
Mosquitoes come in waves, usually initially in the Spring, then the summer. The number of them depends on the temperature and rainfall.

Christmas tree cultivation | Pest Control London Ontario

pest control london ontarioChristmas tree cultivation is an agricultural, forestry, and horticultural occupation which involves growing pine, spruce, and fir trees specifically for use as Christmas trees.
The first Christmas tree farm was established in 1901, but most consumers continued to obtain their trees from forests until the 1930s and 1940s. Christmas tree farming was once seen only as a viable alternative for low-quality farmland, but that perception has changed within the agriculture industry. For optimum yield and quality, land should be flat or gently rolling and relatively free of debris and undergrowth.
A wide variety of pine and fir species are grown as Christmas trees, although a handful of varieties stand out in popularity. In the United States, Douglas-fir, Scots Pine and Fraser Fir all sell well. Nordmann Fir and Norway Spruce sell well in the United Kingdom, the latter being popular throughout Europe. Like all conifers, Christmas trees are vulnerable to a range of pests.
The final stage of cultivation, harvesting, is carried out in a number of ways; one of the more popular methods is the pick-your-own tree farm, where customers are allowed to roam the farm, select their tree, and cut it down themselves. Other farmers cultivate potted trees, with balled roots, which can be replanted after Christmas and used again the following year[edit]History
The practice of cultivating evergreens specifically to sell as Christmas trees dates back to 1901, when a 25,000 tree Norway Spruce farm was sown near Trenton, New Jersey.[1] The commercial market for Christmas trees had started fifty years earlier when a farmer from the Catskill Mountains brought trees into New York City to sell.[2] Despite these pioneering efforts, most people still obtained wild-grown Christmas trees from forests into the 1930s and 1940s.[3] More trees were grown in plantations after World War II, and by the 1950s farmers were shearing and pruning trees to meet customer demands. The Christmas tree market burgeoned through the 1960s and 1970s, but from the late 1980s onward prices and the market for natural Christmas trees declined. In the early 21st century, nearly 98 percent of all natural (non-artificial) Christmas trees sold worldwide were grown on tree farms.[4]

Cultivation

Land and climate

pest control london ontario
This Christmas tree farm in southern Virginia is situated in a gently rolling valley.
Christmas tree farms are best located on relatively level land which is free of obstructions. In the past, Christmas tree farmers established their plantations on less desirable agricultural plots or “wastelands of agriculture”.[5] However, emphasis in modern Christmas tree farming has shifted toward the production of higher-quality trees, increasing land quality expectations as well.[5] Indeed, some species of tree, such as the Fraser Fir, are unable to grow on low-quality, marginal farmland.[6] Flat or gently rolling land is preferred to that with steep slopes and inclines, which is prone to erosion and fluctuations in fertility. Noticeable obstructions, such as rocks, fences or significant underbrush, are also undesirable.[5]
pest control london ontario
This Christmas tree farm in Iowa is located on flat ground and has well-mowed rows between the trees.
Like all crops and plants, Christmas trees require a specific set of nutrients to thrive.[7] There are 16 elements crucial for growth; of those, three are obtained through air and water: hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. Nitrogen,phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, copper, chlorine, manganese, molybdenum, iron, and zinc are obtained from the soil. If the necessary elements are not available in the local soil, nutritious fertilizers are used.[7] Other important soil considerations include pH and drainage.[8] Certain types of soil are preferable, depending on the type of tree. Pine trees are usually better adapted to a sandy or sandy loam soil,[9] while White Spruce trees and fir trees, such as the Douglas-fir, prefer fine-texture loams and clay loam soils.[9] Some trees grow well in all types of soil, but in any case, the land must be well-drained for a Christmas tree farm to have a chance of thriving.[9]
The weather, as with other agricultural endeavors, plays a key outcome in the yield of a Christmas tree farm. Severe cold in the winter and extreme hot and dry conditions during and after harvest can cause irreparable damage to the crop.[10] Early snow can make both harvesting and shipping trees difficult or impossible.[10]

Labor and equipment

Christmas tree farming is a labor-intensive process. Depending on the quality of the land, bulldozing may need to be undertaken prior to planting, in order to remove obstacles such as large trees or rocks.[11] If the volume of undergrowth requires it, the soil may be tilled; tilling can help remove any debris remaining after tree or weed removal. Both woody plants and herbaceous weeds must be controlled prior to planting; this is most often done by application of a chemical herbicide.[11] In addition, some types of fertilizers must be introduced into the soil prior to planting.[11] The work done before planting tree seedlings plays an important role in the overall success of a Christmas tree crop.[10]
After the trees are in the ground, work on the crop continues. Animal pests (especially insects) and diseases must be monitored and controlled, and weed growth must also be minimized. Many species of pine and fir require pruning and shearing two to four years after planting to maintain the classic Christmas tree shape.[10] Late or omitted pruning can result in trees that are unmarketable due to large gaps in needle coverage. Some species of pine, such as the Scots Pine, are susceptible to dormant season “yellowing”, which is generally countered with a green dye or paint.[10][12]
The outlay of money on equipment varies greatly. Some items commonly found on Christmas tree farms are insecticide sprayers, tractors, and shaper sheers.[13] Mechanized planters, at a cost of about US$4,000, are not essential but a work-saving luxury for farmers.[13] Farmers can purchase seedlings, the lifeblood of a Christmas tree farm, from nurseries. One farmer in Oregon purchased seedlings for between US$200–300 per 1,000 plants. The farmer, a wholesaler, sold his final products for about $20 each; after the cost of the trees and other expenses, a profit of $2–3 per tree.[13]

Trees

pest control london ontario
Fraser Fir (cone and foliage pictured) is a popular species of Christmas tree in both the United States and Great Britain.
The best-selling species in the North American market are Scots Pine, Douglas-fir, Noble Fir, Balsam Fir, Fraser Fir, Virginia Pine, and Eastern White Pine, although other types of trees are also grown and sold.[4][14] In Alabama, for example, types of trees grown for use as Christmas trees include Eastern White Pine, Redcedar, Virginia Pine, Leyland Cypress, and Arizona Cypress.[15] In Florida, the Sand Pine and Spruce Pine are among the 20,000 grown in the state each year.[16]
pest control london ontario
Norway Spruce is a popular Christmas tree species in Europe.
In Great Britain, Nordmann Fir is a popular species, largely due to its needle-holding qualities.[17][18] Other popular trees in Britain are Norway Spruce, Serbian Spruce, and Scots Pine, the last of which is slightly rarer;[18] it has sharp needles which do not shed easily.[17]
In the U.S. Pacific Northwest, a major Christmas tree growing region, Douglas-fir has always been the primary species grown.[19] A full one-half of all trees produced in the Pacific Northwest are Douglas-fir.[19] Douglas-firs typically take five to seven years before they are mature enough to sell as Christmas trees.[19] Also common in the region are Noble Fir, a tree which commands a higher price than Douglas-fir, and Grand Fir, which accounts for about 10 percent of the annual harvest in the Northwest.[19] Other species collectively account for only 3–5 percent of the total Northwest harvest.[19]
In North America, Fraser Fir, grown in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina, has been called the “Cadillac of Christmas Trees” as well as the “most popular and most valuable of Christmas tree species”.[20] In the southern United States, Virginia Pine is a popular Christmas tree species.[21] In Canada, White Pine, White Spruce, Scots Pine, Blue Spruce and Fraser Fir are commonly cultivated.[22] In the province of Ontario, Scots Pine has always dominated both the domestic and export markets.[22] Other regions of the world also have different favorites when it comes to natural Christmas trees, and Christmas tree farms reflect these; In Europe, Norway Spruce is popular.[21]

Pests, disease and weeds

Main article: Christmas tree pests and weeds
pest control london ontario
An adult Balsam woolly adelgid, a major pest in the Christmas tree industry
Many of the conifer species cultivated face infestations and death from such pests as the Balsam woolly adelgid, other adelgids and aphids. Invasive insect species, such as the pine shoot beetle and the gypsy moth, also threaten Christmas tree crops.[23] Christmas trees are also vulnerable to fungal pathogens, resulting in such illnesses as root rot, and, in California, Washington, Oregon and British Columbia sudden oak death.[24] Douglas-fir trees are especially vulnerable to infections from plant pathogens such as R. pseudotsugaeand Rhabdocline weiriiR. weirii affects only Douglas-fir trees.[25][26] The pathogen often makes Douglas-fir trees unsaleable as Christmas trees and heavily affects the Christmas tree farming industry.[25]
Mammals such as deer, gophers and ground squirrels are also threats to Christmas tree crops, due to the damage they cause to roots and buds. Certain species of birds are also considered pests, including the Pine Grosbeak, which feeds on conifer buds,[27] usually affecting Scots Pine but also affecting Eastern White Pine and Red Pine, as well as spruce trees.[28] Herbaceous weeds, as well as woody plants, also compete with Christmas tree crops for water and nutrients, necessitating control methods including mowing, chemical herbicide use, and tilling.

Quality

USDA Christmas Tree Grades[29]
GradeRequirements[30]
U.S. PremiumFresh, clean, healthy, heavy density, one minor defect allowed[31]
U.S. No. 1Fresh, fairly clean, healthy, medium density, two minor defects allowed[32]
U.S. No. 2Fresh, fairly clean, healthy, light density,
three minor defects allowed[33]
Christmas tree quality grades have been in place since 1965 in Ontario, Canada, and were included under the provincial Farm Products Grades and Sales Act.[22] While the grades in Ontario are law, in the United States the grading system is not mandated. In fact, it is common for U.S. growers to develop their own grading systems.[34] The grading systems established by individual jurisdictions are often in the spirit of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) grading scheme, even if they are not entirely based upon them.[35] The Department of Agriculture’s United States Standards for Grades of Christmas Trees took effect on October 30, 1989, covering “sheared or unsheared trees of the coniferous species which are normally marketed as Christmas trees”.[29]

Harvest

See also: Christmas tree production
pest control london ontario
Customers, armed with a saw, at a typical “choose-and-cut” Christmas tree farm
Christmas trees can be harvested and marketed in different ways. Some operations are known as “choose-and-cut” or pick-your-own farms, which allow customers to walk through the planted land, select their Christmas tree and cut down themselves.[8] Wholesale operations are more labor-intensive because they usually require the farmer to complete tasks such as baling, cutting, moving the trees to a roadside pick-up, and loading the harvest. In addition, this work must be completed during a very short period in November.[8] Growers also harvest trees by digging and balling the root and selling the trees as nursery stock or as live, reusable Christmas trees. This last option allows trees to be harvested earlier than the usual six to ten year period required to grow a mature Christmas tree.[8]
pest control london ontario
Customers haul their own purchases off-site at choose-and-cut farms.
Larger farms began using helicopters to move tree harvests during the 1980s.[3] One 1,200-acre (490 ha) farm in Oregon lacked road access, so it began using helicopters to move up to 200,000 Christmas trees per year.[36] Helicopters reduce the amount of time between harvesting and market, cutting it from up to two weeks down to as little as three days.[36]
Not all natural Christmas trees harvested are grown on plantations. In British Columbia, Canada, for example, most of the 900,000 trees harvested for use as Christmas trees came from native pine and fir stands.[37] The British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Ranges allows any resident of the province to cut a Christmas tree for free from Crown Lands, provided the individual receive prior permission in writing from a Forest Officer.[38] In the United States, the U.S. Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management offer permits for individual tree cutting on government land, mostly within the National Forest system.[39]

Farmers

The people who operate Christmas tree farms range from full-time growers to part-time farmers. One farmer in Minnesota, who began planting Christmas trees in 1967, gave his trees away for free from his modest 1-acre (4,000 m2) farm for ten years before establishing a tree farming business.[40] Other farmers started growing Christmas trees as a supplemental income for retirement or college funds,[41][42] or they worked farms that were not originally established as Christmas tree farms.[43][44]
Various national growers’ associations have been founded in Christmas tree producing nations. In the United Kingdom, the British Christmas Tree Growers Association is a trade association open to membership from Christmas tree farmers in Great Britain and Northern Ireland.[45] The National Christmas Tree Association serves a similar function in the United States.[46]

Environmental effect

In the United States, the National Christmas Tree Association (NCTA) promotes the environmental benefits of live Christmas trees over the competing artificial alternative.[47] The NCTA stated that every acre of Christmas trees in production produced the daily oxygen requirement for 18 people; with 500,000 acres (200,000 ha) in production in the U.S. alone, that amounts to oxygen for 9 million people per day.[47] The NCTA also stated that the farms help to stabilize the soil, protect water supplies and provide wildlife habitat.[47] In addition, the industry points to the reduction of carbon dioxide through Christmas tree farming.[48] An independent Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study, conducted by a firm of experts in sustainable development, states that a natural tree will generate 3.1 kg of greenhouse gases whereas the artificial tree will produce 8.1 kg per year.[49]
A 1998 report from the Michigan State University Agricultural Experiment Station predicted increasing environmental concerns about tree production and use as one possible reason people may favor artificial trees in the future. The report cited the use of fertilizers and pesticides and increasing concerns regarding tree disposal as the chief elements in its prediction.[50] Critics of tree farming have raised the concerns highlighted in the 1998 report, as well as other issues, such as the effect that large-scale tree farming operations have on biodiversity.[48] Pesticide use on Christmas tree farms is one of the main concerns of environmentalists;[48][51] fir trees are vulnerable to a wide array of pests and diseases which requires the use of pesticides and other chemicals including the widely-used herbicide glyphosate (brand name Roundup).[48] Glyphosate